Cardiopulmonary is a biological term which means that, which relates or pertains to the heart or the lungs. Cardiopulmonary disease is a heart condition that is caused by pulmonary hypertension that is increase in blood pressure in the lung vasculature (pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery, or pulmonary capillaries), causing dizziness, fainting, and shortness of breath, heart failure and even death.
The term cardiopulmonary can be used to mean; Cor polmonale, and pulmonary valve stenosis. Cor polmonale or pulmonary heart disease in simply means right – sided heart failure, which is failure of the right side of the heart as a result of prolonged high blood pressure in the pulmonary artery and right ventricle of the heart. Pulmonary valve stenosis refers to a condition where there is an obstruction of the outflow of blood from the right ventricle or the heart to the lungs. This leads to a reduction of blood in the lungs. (Saidi, 1998).
Causes and effects of cardiopulmonary disease
Causes of Cardiopulmonary disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive disease of the lower respiratory tract of the lungs. Symptom of the disease is difficulty with breathing which progresses over time. COPD develops often as a result of smoking, but could also occur from
long-term inhalation of other irritants into the lungs.
Obstructive sleep apnea is a form of sleep apnea that is particularly prone to obese people. In this condition there is a physical obstruction to the airways.
Central sleep apnea occurs when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing and the person repeatedly stops breathing during sleep.
Mountain sickness this means reduction of the amount of oxygen in the air due to high altitudes
Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary disease affecting the mucus glands of the lungs, liver, pancreas, and intestines, causing progressive disability due to multi-system failure.
Pneumoconiosis this is a lung disease caused by inhaling coal dust. Generally symptoms stop after exposure ceases. (Spring House, 2003)
Effects of Cardiopulmonary disease
Effects of cardiopulmonary disease could range from severe fluid retention to life threatening shortness of breath, Shock and the ultimate which is death.
Techniques used to identify cardiopulmonary disease
Electrocardiography: this tests shows heart strain, heart enlargement, and ischemia. It also reveals arterial enlargement, tachycardia, and extra systole.
Chest X-ray: This shows an increase in pulmonary vascular markings, interstitial edema, pleural effusion, and cardiomegaly.
Pulmonary artery monitoring: This demonstrates elevated pulmonary artery and pulmonary artery wedge pressures, elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in left-sided heart failure, and elevated right arterial pressure or central venous pressure in right-sided heart failure.
Echocardiography: This shows left ventricular dysfunction.
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP): This test detects abnormality in hormone levels produced by failing ventricles.
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing: This determines oxygen consumption and extent of heart failure.
Strategies to Prevent cardiopulmonary disease
There are no specific methods know to guarantee 100% prevention of cardiopulmonary disease
but the following could be necessary suggestions;
Controlling body weight by ensuring that food intake is low in calories could prevent cardiopulmonary disease. Par taking a healthy diet containing all nutrients, avoiding smoking and smoking zones, physical activity for example running, jogging, walking, and swimming keeps the heart healthy. Frequent visits to the physician for blood pressure checks and diabetes controls to ensure that its stability. (Armonk, 1996)
Diagnosis and Management of Patients with Suspect Pneumonia
Diagnosis tests for pneumonia include:
Chest x-rays – this is the use of radioactive rays to evaluate the heart, lungs and or blood vessels. It’s a common type of test that concentrates on the physical makeup.
Blood tests – Involves the physician drawing a small amount of blood and doing some tests on it. Blood tests can be used for a numerous number of tests.
Sputum tests – This are tests carried out by using sputum as the sample.
If correct diagnosis is done on a patient, pneumonia can be managed by undertaking the antibiotic therapy which involves an intake of anti biotic drugs. In some critical cases pneumonia patients could be hospitalized to facilitate supplemental oxygen. (Spring House, 2003)
Saidi A. (1998). "Balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty and stint implantation. For peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in Alagille syndrome". Tex Heart Inst J publishers.
Armonk, N. (1996). Handbook of Echo-Doppler Interpretation. Armonk, N.Futura Publishers.
Spring House (2003). Handbook of diseases. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins publishers
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