History of Portugal During the reign of King Manuel I
Manuel I of Portugal is known as the Fortunate Spice King. He reigned for thirty-two years, during which he established his rule over the entire country. The duke of Medina Sidonia exercised absolute power during his reign. Under his reign, the country was effectively united. Most of his policies were responsible for the partition of Portugal into these countries:
The most significant contribution of the Fortunate Spice King in the history of Portugal is his successful attempt to unify the country through his religious revival and policy of comparative religion. In 1492, he abolished the Catholic Church in Portugal and called for the worship of the God, the omnipotent and almighty Sun God. According to some historians, this act gave rise to the notion of a universal religion. It was then that the idea of a king, a crown, and divine rights came into Portugal’s cultural makeup. The establishment of the Rutulares or royal families, the right of inheritance, the right to legislate, and privileges granted to the nobility all were rooted in this event. Besides that, the procedure of incorporating the Arabs, Moors, Jews, and other foreign subjects in the country was overseen by the Fortunate Spice King.
Although the Fortunate King had by now consolidated his power, there were signs that the power he had amassed was diminishing. In fact, the end of his reign was marked by civil unrest. This period of conflict ended with the death of Manuel I. III. However, his son Joao V was elected to succeed his father on the throne. The first few months of Joao’s reign were marked by internal struggles among the Portuguese, the Rutulares, and the Moorish population who governed in the country. When Joao established himself as a constitutional monarch, the palace was decorated with lavish edifices and the “Manueline Flag” (which later evolved into the modern Portuguese flag). It also marked the beginning of the so-called” Thirty Years’ War” between Portugal and its former colony, Granada.
The King Announced The Deposition of The Duke of Burgundy
On the very first day of his rule as king, on the 31 day have 15 21, in the presence of his councilors, the king announced the deposition of the duke of Burgundy from the Portuguese throne. His announcement was broadcast to the entire kingdom through the mouthpiece of his secretary, Isabella. Isabella was not pleased by this move, for she considered Joao V to be her legitimate candidate to the throne. Moreover, she considered Joao V’s removal from her see to be a clear violation of the ancient dutifullytreatise, the “culture of Dom Joao”.
Consequently, the duke of Burgundy, having learnt of Joao’s move, returned to Portugal accompanied by a large number of his retainers. Among them came the duke of Armentia, the archduke of Fado and the Earl of Cochin. Having carefully studied the situation, they decided that it would be in their own interest to support the cause of the deposed king, notwithstanding that the presence of their troops in Lisbon disturbed the already delicate balance that existed between the raigned king and the Portuguese nobles. They therefore co-operated with the rebellious king in restoring him to the throne.
Balance in the Country
In 1520 the duke of Armentia was installed as king of Portugal alongside his brother, the duke of Cochin. By now the balance in the country had once again been restored, and both the Portuguese kings had relinquished the control of their respective domains. However, in 1525, after much trouble, both Afonso and Manuel were killed in battle. Afonso’s body was brought back to Lisbon and buried in the Cabo de Rama; while Manuel’s body was buried at the fortress of Arrau. The two kingdoms gradually recovered their losses and consolidated their positions.
King of Portugal
King Manuel I did not live to see his appointment as king of Portugal approved by the Cortes, and so he turned down the offer. He never forgave those who had sided with the deposed king, and several of his own family were involved in the murder of some of the Portuguese Jews. To this day they dispute that group of Jews were responsible for the deaths, but almost all agree that the Jews of Lisbon were targeted. This led to the establishment of a Fundoamento de Justo de Religiono (Crusade of Religion), which was later modified into the Donation of Honor.
From Estado da Cochin to Estado do Manejo
In 1524, following his accession to the throne, King Manuel I changed the name of the kingdom from Estado da Cochin to Estado do Manejo. To many it appeared that the new name was not apt since the capital city of the new duke of Bencoolen was situated only thirty-two miles from Lisbon. Nonetheless, even with his conversion, the duke of Bencoolen retained absolute power over Portugal, for the remainder of his life. He died in 1560, having been succeeded by his son Joao V. With the coming of his son Joao II, a period of civil war marked the end of the century for Portugal.
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