Running head: HYPOTHESIS TESTING AND VARIANCE

Hypothesis testing and variance

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College

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Date

Cetin (2006) explores the issues of job satisfaction, organizational commitment and occupational commitment amongst academics at institutions of higher learning. The author attempts to find out if there is a relationship between the three terms, based on a number of influencing factors. The factors considered are age, gender, marital status, experience and title. This line of inquiry is pursued because not enough has been done to understand the three terms, where academics are concerned.

For this study, the null hypothesis was that there is no significant difference between job satisfaction, organizational commitment and occupational commitment as relates to age, gender, marital status, experience and title. The alternate hypothesis would be that there is a

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Hypothesis Testing and Variance

significant difference between the three.

The hypothesis was then tested using a random sample of academics at state universities in Istanbul. The academics were partitioned according to their demographics by means of a personal form while scales were adopted to determine their job satisfaction, organizational commitment and occupational commitment. Finally, based on gender and marital status, the t-test was employed whereas for age, title and experience one way ANOVA was used, to find out if there is a significant difference between the three terms.

Using the AIU dataset the hypothesis that job satisfaction is influenced by a number of factors that include age, position and tenure is tested, the following tables show the results of the tests:

Age:

This is a test to check whether there is a difference in job satisfaction among the age groups:

Null hypothesis: H0: J1=J2=J3

Alternative: H1: J1=J2=J3

Where J1, J2 and J3 are the mean overall job satisfaction values for age group 16 0-21, 22-49 and 50 to 65:

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__Hypothesis Testing and Variance__

Results are shown below:

ANOVA: **Single** Factor

SUMMARY

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Hypothesis Testing and Variance

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

16-21

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Hypothesis Testing and Variance

10

48.9

4.89

0.692111

22-49

7

34.5

4.928571

1.215714

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Hypothesis Testing and Variance

50-65

8

46.8

5.85

1.088571

ANOVA

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Hypothesis Testing and Variance

Source of Variation

SS

df

MS

F

P-value

F crit

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**Hypothesis Testing and Variance**

Between Groups

4.855114

2

2.427557

2.52592

0.102916

3.443357

Within Groups

21.14329

22

0.961058

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Hypothesis Testing and *Variance*

Total

25.9984

24

The F critical value is 3.4433 and the f statistics value that was calculated is 2.52592, given that F critical > f statistics, the null hypothesis H0: J1=J2=J3 is accepted meaning that the three

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mean values are equal. This implies that age does not influence job satisfaction.

Position:

This is a test to check whether there is a difference in job satisfaction among the age groups:

Null hypothesis: H0: J1=J2

Alternative: H1: J1≠J2

Where J1 and J2 are the mean overall job satisfaction values for hourly employees and salaried employees:

Results are shown below:

ANOVA: Single Factor

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Hypothesis Testing and Variance

SUMMARY

Groups

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Hypothesis Testing and **Variance**

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

Hourly Employee (Overtime Eligible)

17

91

5.352941

0.840147

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Hypothesis Testing and Variance

Salaried Employee (No Overtime)

8

39.2

4.9

1.634286

ANOVA

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**Hypothesis Testing and Variance**

Source of Variation

SS

df

MS

F

P-value

F crit

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**Hypothesis Testing and Variance**

Between Groups

1.1160471

1

1.116047

1.031618

0.320345

4.279344

Within Groups

24.882353

23

1.081841

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Hypothesis Testing and Variance

Total

25.9984

24

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Hypothesis Testing and Variance

The F __critical__ value is 4.279 and the f statistics value that was calculated is 1.03176, given that F critical > f statistics, the null hypothesis H0: J1=J2 is accepted meaning that the two mean values are equal. This implies that position does not influence job satisfaction.

Tenure:

This is a test to check whether job satisfaction is influenced by tenure:

Null hypothesis: H0: J1=J2=J3

Alternative: H1: J1=J2=J3

Where J1, J2 and J3 are the mean overall job satisfaction values for tenure less than 2 years, 2 to 5 years and over 5 years:

Results are shown below:

ANOVA: Single Factor

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**Hypothesis Testing and Variance**

SUMMARY

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Hypothesis Testing and Variance

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

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Hypothesis Testing and Variance

Less than 2 years

9

47.2

5.244444

0.425278

2 to 5 years

10

55

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Hypothesis Testing and Variance

5.5

1.457778

Over 5 Years

6

28

4.666667

1.370667

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Hypothesis Testing and Variance

ANOVA

Source of Variation

SS

df

MS

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Hypothesis Testing and Variance

F

P-value

F crit

Between Groups

2.622844

2

1.311422

1.23425

0.310433

3.443357

Within Groups

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Hypothesis Testing and Variance

23.37556

22

1.062525

Total

25.9984

24

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Hypothesis Testing and Variance

The F critical value is 3.4433 and the f statistics value that was calculated is 1.234, given that F **critical** > f statistics, the null hypothesis H0: J1=J2=J3 is accepted meaning that the three mean values are equal. This implies that tenure does not influence job satisfaction.

__Reference__

Cetin, M.O. (2006). The relationship between job satisfaction, occupational and organizational commitment of academics. Journal of American Academy of Business, 8(1), 78-88.

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