Social Networking Tools And College Performance

## Introduction

The following is a report showing the relationship between social networks and college performance, the data set sample size is n =103 and the two variable include social networking time and performance. In order to show the relationship between the two variables social networking time is the independent variable while performance is the dependent variable.

Scatter diagram:

The following is a scatter diagram plot that shows the relationship between the two variables.

The trend line above shows a weak but positive relationship between the two variables, this relationship shows that as social networking time increases performance also increases.

From the chart the estimated model is as follows:

Y = 73.051 + 0.0534 X, where Y is performance and X is social networking time. The slope value is 0.0534 meaning that if social networking time is increased by one unit holding all factors

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constant then the performance value will increase by 0.0534 units.

ANOVA table:

This table is the ANOVA table showing the sources of variation:

ANOVA

variation  source

sum  of squares

degrees  of freedom

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mean  sum of squares

ess

23.81627594

1

23.81627594

11394.68313

101

112.8186449

tss

11418.49941

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103

110.8592176

The table above shows that the level of explained sum of squares is relatively low compared to the total sum of squares and residual sum of squares, the R squared value is calculated as follows r squared = ess/tss and results show that the R squared value is equal to 0.0021, this R squared value shows the deviations of the dependent variable that are explained by the independent variable, in this case only 0.21% of deviations in performance is explained by social networking time, this means that there is a weak relationship between the two variable.

Statistical significance of the estimated values:

In order to determine whether the two estimated values are statistically significant the F test is undertaken,

Null hypothesis:

Ho: A= B = 0

Ha: A ≠ B ≠ 0

Where a is the constant value estimated, B is the slope value.

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F statistics value is calculated as follows:

F = (ESS/ D.F)/ (RSS/ D.F)

Using the ANOVA table the F value is

F = (23.81627594)/ (112.8186449)

F =0.211102305 F test alpha = 0.05 P value 3.8415

The P value > F calculated

This means the null hypothesis that A= B = 0 is accepted and therefore the estimates are not statistically significant.

The above model is not appropriate for forecasting purposes, this is because although there is a relationship between the two variables performance cannot entirely be explained by social networking time only, there are other factors that affect performance which are not included in the model and this is the reason why the residual value is relatively high and the R squared value relatively low.

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The chart below shows the standardized residual plot:

From the chart there are a number of outliers that are greater than the value 3 and 2, this can be as a result of inconsistencies in data collected. However this can also be as a result the nature of human behavior which is sometimes unpredictable, respondents with values that are outliers should verify whether information they provided is correct and whether there are other activities they feel affect their performance.

## Conclusion:

The estimated model depicts the relationship between social networking time and performance, results show that there is a positive relationship between the two variables, however the R squared values show a weak relationship where only a small percentage of deviation in performance is explained by social networking time, the F test that establishes the statistical significance of the estimated parameters show that the estimates are not statistically significant and therefore the model is not appropriate for forecasting purposes.

## REFERENCE:

Mendenhall, W. (2003) Introduction to statistics, Prentice Hall press, New  Jersey

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Appendixes:

X

Y

Y est

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Social networking time (hrs)

Performance (pts so far)

y

x

xy

x2

estimated Y

e

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Social Networking Tools And College Performance

e2

tss

ess

standardized residual

13

65.50

-8.14

2.00

-16.24

3.98

73.75

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-8.25

67.98

66.24

0.01

-0.24

11

72.00

-1.64

0.00

0.01

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0.00

73.64

-1.64

2.68

2.69

0.00

-0.60

6

67.00

-6.64

-5.00

11 / 129

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33.22

25.04

73.37

-6.37

40.59

44.07

0.07

-0.39

12.5

71.50

12 / 129

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-2.14

1.50

-3.20

2.24

73.72

-2.22

4.92

4.57

0.01

-0.59

3

13 / 129

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66.75

-6.89

-8.00

55.14

64.07

73.21

-6.46

41.74

47.45

0.18

-0.38

14 / 129

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11

66.50

-7.14

0.00

0.03

0.00

73.64

-7.14

50.96

50.96

0.00

15 / 129

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-0.33

5

70.50

-3.14

-6.00

18.85

36.05

73.32

-2.82

7.94

16 / 129

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9.85

0.10

-0.57

12

86.00

12.36

1.00

12.31

0.99

73.69

12.31

17 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

151.49

152.80

0.00

0.23

4

86.75

13.11

-7.00

-91.84

49.06

18 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

73.26

13.49

181.86

171.91

0.14

0.39

24

76.00

2.36

13.00

30.69

19 / 129

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168.89

74.33

1.67

2.78

5.58

0.48

-0.60

29

71.00

-2.64

20 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

18.00

-47.48

323.84

74.60

-3.60

12.96

6.96

0.92

-0.54

1

73.50

21 / 129

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-0.14

-10.00

1.39

100.09

73.10

0.40

0.16

0.02

0.29

-0.61

22 / 129

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6

76.00

2.36

-5.00

-11.82

25.04

73.37

2.63

6.91

5.58

0.07

-0.57

23 / 129

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3.5

71.50

-2.14

-7.50

16.05

56.32

73.24

-1.74

3.02

4.57

24 / 129

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0.16

-0.60

5.8

82.00

8.36

-5.20

-43.52

27.09

73.36

8.64

74.64

25 / 129

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69.91

0.08

-0.20

46

70.00

-3.64

35.00

-127.34

1224.69

75.51

26 / 129

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-5.51

30.34

13.24

3.50

-0.44

18

46.00

-27.64

7.00

-193.35

48.94

27 / 129

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74.01

-28.01

784.69

763.89

0.14

3.73

5.5

65.58

-8.06

-5.50

28 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

44.36

30.30

73.34

-7.76

60.29

64.94

0.09

-0.28

6.5

56.50

-17.14

29 / 129

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-4.50

77.20

20.29

73.40

-16.90

285.54

293.73

0.06

0.97

13

30 / 129

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79.00

5.36

2.00

10.70

3.98

73.75

5.25

27.61

28.74

0.01

-0.46

31 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

7.1

54.50

-19.14

-3.90

74.72

15.24

73.43

-18.93

358.35

366.29

0.04

32 / 129

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1.37

7

37.00

-36.64

-4.00

146.71

16.03

73.42

-36.42

1326.76

1342.39

33 / 129

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0.05

6.74

23

56.50

-17.14

12.00

-205.59

143.90

74.28

-17.78

34 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

316.11

293.73

0.41

1.14

13

49.50

-24.14

2.00

-48.17

3.98

73.75

35 / 129

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-24.25

587.83

582.67

0.01

2.64

3

78.75

5.11

-8.00

-40.91

36 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

64.07

73.21

5.54

30.68

26.13

0.18

-0.44

5.2

66.75

-6.89

-5.80

37 / 129

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39.98

33.69

73.33

-6.58

43.28

47.45

0.10

-0.37

1.1

74.50

38 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

0.86

-9.90

-8.53

98.10

73.11

1.39

1.93

0.74

0.28

-0.60

11.1

39 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

71.00

-2.64

0.10

-0.25

0.01

73.64

-2.64

6.99

6.96

0.00

-0.57

40 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

17

83.00

9.36

6.00

56.13

35.95

73.96

9.04

81.74

87.64

0.10

41 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

-0.16

7.5

67.75

-5.89

-3.50

20.64

12.28

73.45

-5.70

32.51

42 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

34.68

0.04

-0.43

3.1

82.75

9.11

-7.90

-72.02

62.48

73.22

9.53

43 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

90.89

83.02

0.18

-0.11

11.5

64.25

-9.39

0.50

-4.65

0.25

44 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

73.67

-9.42

88.64

88.15

0.00

-0.12

12.7

67.75

-5.89

1.70

-9.98

45 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

2.88

73.73

-5.98

35.75

34.68

0.01

-0.41

9.75

77.50

3.86

46 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

-1.25

-4.84

1.57

73.57

3.93

15.43

14.91

0.00

-0.53

14

76.50

47 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

2.86

3.00

8.57

8.97

73.80

2.70

7.30

8.19

0.03

-0.57

48 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

13.5

72.00

-1.64

2.50

-4.09

6.23

73.77

-1.77

3.14

2.69

0.02

-0.60

49 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

33

83.75

10.11

22.00

222.41

483.81

74.81

8.94

79.86

102.24

50 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

1.38

-0.17

18.2

83.00

9.36

7.20

67.36

51.78

74.02

8.98

80.59

51 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

87.64

0.15

-0.17

26

74.00

0.36

15.00

5.42

224.87

74.44

52 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

-0.44

0.19

0.13

0.64

-0.61

6.5

64.50

-9.14

-4.50

41.16

20.29

53 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

73.40

-8.90

79.17

83.51

0.06

-0.17

17.5

53.50

-20.14

6.50

54 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

-130.81

42.19

73.99

-20.49

419.66

405.56

0.12

1.71

21

75.25

1.61

55 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

10.00

16.11

99.91

74.17

1.08

1.16

2.60

0.29

-0.61

8

56 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

50.00

-23.64

-3.00

71.02

9.03

73.48

-23.48

551.22

558.79

0.03

2.44

57 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

5.1

73.42

-0.22

-5.90

1.29

34.86

73.32

0.10

0.01

0.05

0.10

58 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

-0.61

13.5

87.00

13.36

2.50

33.35

6.23

73.77

13.23

174.98

178.53

59 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

0.02

0.36

14

76.25

2.61

3.00

7.82

8.97

73.80

2.45

60 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

6.01

6.82

0.03

-0.58

7.5

63.50

-10.14

-3.50

35.53

12.28

73.45

61 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

-9.95

99.03

102.79

0.04

-0.06

22.5

85.75

12.11

11.50

139.23

62 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

132.15

74.25

11.50

132.19

146.69

0.38

0.12

15

78.50

4.86

4.00

63 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

19.42

15.97

73.85

4.65

21.60

23.63

0.05

-0.49

61

82.00

64 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

8.36

50.00

418.03

2499.56

76.31

5.69

32.38

69.91

7.13

-0.43

3.75

65 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

84.00

10.36

-7.25

-75.17

52.63

73.25

10.75

115.54

107.36

0.15

0.03

66 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

4

54.00

-19.64

-7.00

137.56

49.06

73.26

-19.26

371.12

385.68

0.14

67 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

1.44

13

59.50

-14.14

2.00

-28.22

3.98

73.75

-14.25

202.93

68 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

199.90

0.01

0.51

7

84.25

10.61

-4.00

-42.49

16.03

73.42

10.83

69 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

117.19

112.60

0.05

0.04

2.5

55.00

-18.64

-8.50

158.51

72.32

70 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

73.18

-18.18

330.67

347.40

0.21

1.22

3.1

78.50

4.86

-7.90

-38.43

71 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

62.48

73.22

5.28

27.92

23.63

0.18

-0.46

9.8

81.25

7.61

72 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

-1.20

-9.17

1.45

73.57

7.68

58.92

57.93

0.00

-0.29

12

87.00

73 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

13.36

1.00

13.30

0.99

73.69

13.31

177.11

178.53

0.00

0.37

74 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

7.1

73.00

-0.64

-3.90

2.49

15.24

73.43

-0.43

0.18

0.41

0.04

-0.61

75 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

11

82.00

8.36

0.00

-0.04

0.00

73.64

8.36

69.92

69.91

76 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

0.00

-0.23

4

67.00

-6.64

-7.00

46.50

49.06

73.26

-6.26

39.24

77 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

44.07

0.14

-0.40

30

75.00

1.36

19.00

25.86

360.83

74.65

78 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

0.35

0.12

1.85

1.03

-0.61

20

65.00

-8.64

9.00

-77.71

80.92

79 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

74.12

-9.12

83.16

74.63

0.23

-0.15

2

84.75

11.11

-9.00

80 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

-100.05

81.08

73.16

11.59

134.38

123.46

0.23

0.13

7.5

80.50

6.86

81 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

-3.50

-24.04

12.28

73.45

7.05

49.68

47.08

0.04

-0.34

27

82 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

83.50

9.86

16.00

157.74

255.86

74.49

9.01

81.12

97.25

0.73

-0.16

83 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

12

79.50

5.86

1.00

5.84

0.99

73.69

5.81

33.73

34.36

0.00

84 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

-0.43

9

84.00

10.36

-2.00

-20.77

4.02

73.53

10.47

109.59

107.36

85 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

0.01

-0.01

2.75

74.50

0.86

-8.25

-7.11

68.13

73.20

1.30

86 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

1.70

0.74

0.19

-0.60

7

78.00

4.36

-4.00

-17.46

16.03

73.42

87 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

4.58

20.93

19.02

0.05

-0.50

5.5

87.50

13.86

-5.50

-76.30

88 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

30.30

73.34

14.16

200.38

192.14

0.09

0.50

3.7

63.00

-10.64

-7.30

89 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

77.71

53.35

73.25

-10.25

105.03

113.18

0.15

-0.03

5.5

83.00

90 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

9.36

-5.50

-51.53

30.30

73.34

9.66

93.23

87.64

0.09

-0.10

9

91 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

62.00

-11.64

-2.00

23.33

4.02

73.53

-11.53

132.98

135.46

0.01

0.12

92 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

9

88.00

14.36

-2.00

-28.79

4.02

73.53

14.47

209.34

206.25

0.01

93 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

0.55

1.1

74.50

0.86

-9.90

-8.53

98.10

73.11

1.39

1.93

94 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

0.74

0.28

-0.60

13

77.50

3.86

2.00

7.71

3.98

73.75

3.75

95 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

14.10

14.91

0.01

-0.53

13

77.50

3.86

2.00

7.71

3.98

96 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

73.75

3.75

14.10

14.91

0.01

-0.53

10

87.00

13.36

-1.00

-13.42

97 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

1.01

73.58

13.42

179.96

178.53

0.00

0.38

5.5

70.00

-3.64

98 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

-5.50

20.03

30.30

73.34

-3.34

11.19

13.24

0.09

-0.55

6

76.50

99 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

2.86

-5.00

-14.32

25.04

73.37

3.13

9.79

8.19

0.07

-0.56

100 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

6

71.50

-2.14

-5.00

10.70

25.04

73.37

-1.87

3.50

4.57

0.07

-0.59

101 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

11

72.25

-1.39

0.00

0.01

0.00

73.64

-1.39

1.93

1.93

102 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

0.00

-0.60

3

82.00

8.36

-8.00

-66.93

64.07

73.21

8.79

77.25

103 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

69.91

0.18

-0.18

14

76.50

2.86

3.00

8.57

8.97

73.80

104 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

2.70

7.30

8.19

0.03

-0.57

3.5

76.00

2.36

-7.50

-17.72

56.32

105 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

73.24

2.76

7.63

5.58

0.16

-0.57

1.1

89.00

15.36

-9.90

106 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

-152.14

98.10

73.11

15.89

252.51

235.97

0.28

0.79

14

77.00

3.36

107 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

3.00

10.07

8.97

73.80

3.20

10.25

11.30

0.03

-0.56

4

108 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

64.50

-9.14

-7.00

64.01

49.06

73.26

-8.76

76.82

83.51

0.14

-0.19

109 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

11

69.50

-4.14

0.00

0.02

0.00

73.64

-4.14

17.13

17.13

0.00

110 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

-0.52

8

55.20

-18.44

-3.00

55.40

9.03

73.48

-18.28

334.09

339.98

111 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

0.03

1.24

7

83.00

9.36

-4.00

-37.49

16.03

73.42

9.58

112 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

91.69

87.64

0.05

-0.10

7.5

83.58

9.94

-3.50

-34.84

12.28

73.45

113 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

10.13

102.59

98.83

0.04

-0.04

5.5

83.50

9.86

-5.50

-54.28

114 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

30.30

73.34

10.16

103.13

97.25

0.09

-0.04

13.5

64.00

-9.64

2.50

115 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

-24.05

6.23

73.77

-9.77

95.49

92.90

0.02

-0.08

10

76.00

116 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

2.36

-1.00

-2.37

1.01

73.58

2.42

5.83

5.58

0.00

-0.58

19.4

117 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

85.50

11.86

8.40

99.58

70.49

74.09

11.41

130.25

140.69

0.20

0.11

118 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

5.5

87.00

13.36

-5.50

-73.55

30.30

73.34

13.66

186.47

178.53

0.09

119 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

0.42

10.5

76.00

2.36

-0.50

-1.19

0.25

73.61

2.39

5.70

120 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

5.58

0.00

-0.58

9.5

79.00

5.36

-1.50

-8.07

2.26

73.56

5.44

121 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

29.61

28.74

0.01

-0.45

8

87.00

13.36

-3.00

-40.14

9.03

122 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

73.48

13.52

182.84

178.53

0.03

0.40

11

85.00

11.36

0.00

-0.05

123 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

0.00

73.64

11.36

129.09

129.08

0.00

0.10

10.5

75.00

1.36

124 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

-0.50

-0.69

0.25

73.61

1.39

1.93

1.85

0.00

-0.60

total

1133.45

7584.78

125 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

0.00

0.00

445.79

8344.23

0.00

11394.68

11418.50

23.82

mean

126 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

11.00436893

73.64

0.00

110.63

127 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

stdev

180.53

128 / 129

Social Networking Tools And College Performance

129 / 129