Water pollution:

Water pollution occurs when water bodies are seriously affected, itcan be defined as the presence of foreign materials either in solid or in solution form in water sources. The presence of any unwanted substances in water makes it not safe for drinking, navigation, and recreational uses i.e. swimming waterskiing, and angling. This leads to bad odor and presence of micro organism’s example protozoa, fungi, bacteria and protozoa which causes diseases such as typhoid cholera and dysentery human, urgent measures are required to rectify the situation so as to maintain a stable ecological system.

Causes of water pollution:

Water pollution is mainly caused by human activities on land, this range from agricultural activities, farming in particular leads to water pollution due to uses of pesticides example in tea, cotton, pyrethrum and coffee plantations these pesticides are washed away into streams, rivers and lakes thus killing some of the aquatic organisms.

Uses of fertilizers which contains high levels of nitrates, phosphates and also those that contain growth hormones will lead to pollution, these chemicals lead to excess stimulation of aquatic plants and algae around water bodies and streams, this clogging and covering of water bodies prevent light from penetrating thus creating an imbalance in the ecological system because the light is important for aquatic living organisms.

Wash offs from ploughed fields and construction sites in urban centers logging sites is also a

Water pollution:

contributing factor in water pollution, run offs from pastures land erode river banks bring around sediment sand organic substances thus reducing depth of water bodies which lead to eutrophication.

Heat is also a water pollutant in that change in temperatures of water in seas and oceans affects the metabolic processes of aquatic organisms. Waste from industries is another major factor causing water pollution .emissions such as sulphur dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere form acid rain which causes harm to both plants and animals. Radio active emission from nuclear power plants, uranium and thorium refining and mining plants also contribute to water pollution.

Management plant alleviate the problem:

Management of water pollution includes legal issues concerning the environment, whereby specific regulations of wastes from manufacturing industries and dumping should be put in place. Farming near river banks should be avoided to reduce soil erosion that lead to sedimentation. Recycling and treatment of urban waste should be encouraged

Dumping of mechanical waste from garages and car washes should not be directed into rivers but a better system should be encouraged. Scientific radio active material and hospital wastes should be professionally disposed. Fishing using chemicals should be highly panelized in law. And the Use of organic fertilizers rather than chemicals should be encouraged, water hyacinth control involves the use of herbicides which leads to pollution, an alternative method should be used example use of anthropoids.

Water pollution:

Opposing issues:

Fertilizer and pesticides usage in plantations is not easy to regulate as the two are very important for food security in an economy. Plough and cultivation that lead to soil erosion lead to eutrofication is hard to control and the Non point sources which deliver pollutants indirectly through environment are difficult to control

Another issue is the Eutrophication which is a natural phenomenon that occurs due to aging, it also lead to sedimentations and organic matter in water bodies finally the Human aquatic interaction is also not possible to avoid due to benefits incurred e.g. transport, hydro electric schemes, irrigation and fishing.

Challenges and limitations:

– Heavy rains wash away vegetative covers on rivers and streams which are beyond human control.

– In drainage channels aquatic weeds create a high risk of flooding and water logging because they increase channel roughness hence block water flows.

– It’s not advisable to reduce irrigation as this would reduce food production.

– Control of notorious emergent macrophytesin Europeis e.g. phragmites australis

which can spread from aquatic habitat to terrestrial fields where water tables are close to the surfaces are not easy to control without use of herbicides.

– Oil spillage in oceans is not 100% avoidable due to the fact that crude oils are transported by heavy tankers and ship on oceans where accidents happen.

– It requires high political good will to implement some polices to reduce water pollution especially at international levels.

– Pollution due to natural phenomena example volcanoes, algae blooms, storms are beyond human control.

Water pollution:

– Management of sewerage systems and industrial waste depend on countries economic power.

How plan affect community.

–  Oil spillage on and marines oceans are not 100%posible to rectify.

Other emerging issues:

Reducing farming along river banks practicing of irrigation may negatively harm food security in a community. By not regulating aquatic weeds, this may lead to harboring of mosquitoes e.g. mansonia mosquito responsible for transmitting filaris and encephalitis. Jobs are lost incase industrial emission is regulated where manufacturers who are not competitive are driven out of business. Lifestyle is altered where certain products are regulated by registration enacted e.g. use of plastic bags. Finally the offshore Oil explorations and drilling causes oil spills.