In general, terms a policy is a plan of action that is created in order to guide the decision making process and achieve rational goals/outcomes. Policies are in both the public and private sector.
In this analysis, we shall take a government policy to be “whatever governments choose to do or not to do” (dye, 1976). As thus, we should differentiate policies from laws since policies are supposed to guide the process of achieving rational objectives.
Public policies are for various reasons and as a result, they have different outcomes. The implementation of any policy usually results in either intended and unintended effects or impacts. Since Policies are structured to avoid some negative effect or to cause some positive developments, the way they are implemented determines their effectiveness.
To achieve these goals a policy drafter needs to have publicly accepted legitimacy. In addition, the process of designing policies should be well institutionalized, in order for it to be more acceptable to the public. The implementation of public policies may have negative effects on certain people within the society. This results in the infringement of the personal liberties and or freedom. To avoid the deliberate violation of personal liberties, the policy makers should exercise institutional responsibility in dealing with the public.
Government policies may be classified on various lines. There are those that are environmentally based, national defense based amongst others.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DYE’S INSTITUTIONALISM MODEL AND PRESIDENT BUSH’S “RESPONSE TO TERRORISM"
Institutionalism as a concept in international relations and diplomacy in particular, according to dye stipulates that the international system is not anarchic in practice. However, it has an implicit and or explicit structure that determines how states and other actors relate on an international scale. Thus, these institutions or regimes determine the nature of the international arena. In contrast to this, the powers granted to certain individuals may counter their effectiveness. This for example can be compared to the nature of president bush’s response to terrorism. The bush administration has overlooked the role of some national and international bodies and instead chosen more of a presidential than governmental path.
In his approach bush has claimed that Islamic fundamentalism is different from Islam as a religion itself.
Thus bush has chosen to firstly make preemptive attacks on suspected terrorists before they can attack e.g. earlier this year in Somalia. Secondly he has made it known that he is against the acquisition of weapons of mass destruction to rebels, outlawed regimes or any other organized crime group. In addition he has made it known that he is against the provision of safe havens to any terrorist group. The president has also made it known that he is against the idea of terrorists taking control of any state. This is to deny them basis for launching attacks.
The approach that the president has taken is different from the institutionalism model suggested by scholars like Thomas dye.
SELECT ONE ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ISSUE AND BRIEFLY OUTLINE THE POSITION OF EACH OF TWO OF THE ORGANIZED ENVIRONMENTAL INTEREST GROUPS ON THIS ISSUE.
Global warming (climatic change)
Global warming or the sustained average increase in global temperatures is viewed to be one of the most dangerous and risky issues in environmental management. Issues of global warming or climatic changes may be caused or be because of any of the following: solar radiation, the earths orbit, greenhouse gas concentrations, the process of glaciation’s amongst others. These can be easily classified as climatic and non-climatic factors. There are many environmental agencies involved in matters of global warming. These groups include the European environmental agency, the commission for environmental cooperation, as well as the environmentalists for nuclear energy.
These groups have differing approaches to the concept of global warming, although they are all involved in the monitoring and evaluation of climatic changes.
The European environmental agency has advocated for the following measures in trying to curb climatic change. Firstly, the measures are advocated for depending on available technology and in pursuit of the attainment of the Kyoto protocol goals.
The conservation and efficient use of energy- this broad field will encompass the following:
Efficient vehicles – the increased use of Fuel economy can easily be done without affecting the utilities of passengers.
Reduced uses of vehicles – personal motor vehicles are always part of the pollutants. Through Improved, urban design and structures passengers may be motivated to use commercial rather than private means of transportation.
Efficient buildings – the construction of improved ultra-modern buildings and appliances can cut emissions by 25% especially if they rely heavily on solar light for daily internal lighting.
Technological shift from coal dependence to natural gas usage can achieve momentous reductions. In addition to this, an emergence of new technologies that are more effective and efficient in trapping and storing carbon dioxide from coalmines, these could be used to reduce emissions. Additionally the use of Nuclear Power is increasingly becoming common. The problem with the increased use of nuclear energy brings out some other environmental concerns.
On the other side of the table, other organizations like the environmentalists for nuclear energy have a different opinion on this matter. Irrespective of the three miles island nuclear incident and the Chernobyl disaster, this group still advocates for increased use of nuclear power although there is the bigger problem of disposal of nuclear waste.
BY SELECTING ONE OF THE MILITARY MISSIONS OUTLINED ON PAGE 304 OF THE DYE TEXT, DISCUSS THE STATEMENT THAT "WAR IS A CONTINUATION OF POLITICS BY OTHER MEANS" (KARL VON CLAUSEWITZ).
Politics since the inception of the Greek city-states centuries ago has always been characterized by wars. Many peace treaties that were signed from ages ago to those that our governments sign today are almost all because of war. Many political scholars and writers have argued that there is no peace without war. Look for example at the treaty of Versailles, it has been able to mitigate a third world war for a long time now yet it was signed during the time of
When countries engage in gunboat diplomacy in essence, what the states tell us is that war is still part of politics. It is surprising to note that the docket of diplomacy, foreign affairs and international relations is usually left to the presidents or prime ministers. Surprisingly these same fellows are usually the heads of the military in their specific countries.
Additionally war is declared against certain countries, which violate the terms of the United Nations charter. In such cases, the declaration of war is always as a means of continuing politics. Some of these major deployments in pursuit of United Nations resolutions include the following. Firstly, the United States military was deployed in the Korean peninsula after North Korea invaded its southern counterpart. This deployment saw an active force averaging around 300000 during the entire period of the involvement from 1950 to 1953. The deployment led to the declaration of a demilitarized zone on the border of the two states.
The second major deployment of United States troops under the mandate of the United Nations Security Council mandates was during the gulf war. During this time, the American forces led a coalition of United Nations backed force in operation desert shield and operation desert storm.
This involvement is justified since it was intended to protect not only Kuwait sovereignty but also to protect the interests of Iraqis Kurdistan minority ethnic group.
Dye, Thomas, Understanding Public Policy, 10th ed, Prentice-Hall, 2002.
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