A. Cognac:

Production process:

The production process of cognac involves the following steps:


Grapes harvesting usually takes place in September, mature grapes are harvested manually or mechanically.


Pressing of grapes is undertaken using horizontal plates, seeds contain a substance which can damage the cognac and therefore are removed.



The extracted juice is fermented naturally without adding any other substance, the fermentation process takes two to three weeks,


The next step involves distillation of the fermented juice. The distillation process involves boiling the wine to achieve an alcohol level of 28 to 30 %, the resulting product in this first distillation is known as brouillis. The product is then distilled again to achieve a 70% alcohol level and the resulting product is known as Bonne chauffe.


The cognac is then stored in oak casks, it is stored for two years and during this period the tannin from the oak mixes with the cognac and therefore the color of the liquid changes to amber.


The process involves changing the quality of the cognac, it involves regular tasting the cognac, adding distilled water, changing oak casks and mixing cognacs of different ages to achieve desired quality.


Packaging and labeling:

After blending the labeling process is undertaken, packaging and labeling changes over time and also will depend on the market, shapes of bottling, the cork and the label style. For example the Asian consumers prefer gold labels.

B. Single barrel bourbon:

Unique process:

The process of producing a single barrel bourbon involves mixing several barrel to achieve a uniform mixture, they are then stored in a warehouse and these barrels are checked regularly, over time the best part of the warehouse produces high quality whiskey and these barrels are allowed to mature for a longer period, when they mature they are bottled one barrel at a time.

C. Single malt Scotch whiskey:


Aberfeldy is a single malt scotch whisky made in the highland region, it was founded in 1896 by John Dewar, 12 years old single malt that has a deep gold color and has a heather honey and Seville orange taste.

( http://www.whisky.com/brands/Aberfeldy_brand.html )




Balvenie is a single malt whiskey founded by William Grant in 1886, 10 year whiskey and has the following characteristics: it is medium golden straw in color, honey and oak taste traces, smooth and medium dry.

( http://www.whisky.com/brands/Balvenie_brand.html )



Glenkinchie is a single malt whiskey founded by John Cockburn in the year 1825, 12 year old whiskey and has the following characteristics: pale gold color, malted barley taste and a dry finish.

( http://www.whisky.com/brands/Glenkinchie_brand.html )



Caol Ila

Caol Ila is a single malt whiskey founded by Hector Henderson in the year 1846, it is age ranges from 12 to 25 years and has the following characteristics: pale straw color, sweet and slight acidity but pleasant taste and has a sweet Smokey finish.

( http://www.whisky.com/brands/caol_ila_brand.html )


Cognac France (2009) production process of Cognac, retrieved on 27th November, from http:// www.cognac.fr/cognac/_en/2_cognac/index.aspx?page=assemblage

Scotch Whiskey Association (2009) Single malt scotch whiskey and Single barrel bourbon, retrieved on 27 th November, from http://www.scotch-whisky.org.uk/

Whiskey (2009) Whiskey brands, retrieved on 27th November, from http://www.whisky.com/bra nds