Human Resource Management: Training Needs Analysis


The main purpose of carrying out training needs is to evaluate the organizations requirements in terms of skills and knowledge attainment. The root cause of carrying out that type of analysis is the gap analysis. This is the evaluation of the difference between the skills, knowledge and motivation (attitude) the employees of the organization currently have and the skills, knowledge and motivation that is actually needed to be able to achieve the objectives of the organization.

Training Process: The First Step

The human resource management has several duties that make it a very important part of any organization since it’s clear that the people as a resource are very critical. Basically managing personnel can have a great deal of improvement on the performance or production of an organization. The functions of eth HR that is critical include recruitment and training. This is so because, it’s the time when the required resources are brought in either by training the current employees or going to the field and collecting experts in the field that has deficient skills in that organization (Hersey & Blanchard 2007). The importance of need analysis is seen at this stage. It’s through the need analysis that the HR management is able to identify the type of skill they need to obtain fro the organization if they want a particular job to be done (Storey 2007). For instance, the introduction of electronic documentation and information systems in the healthcare sector requires that many Information Technology experts be employed to work besides the medical practitioners. The practitioners are also being educated on the use of the latest technology hence making them to have IT qualifications beside the medical experience.

Its been also agreed by HR managers that need analysis is the initial stage in the process of carrying training of the employees and hence very important for the success of any training program set in place. The needs analysis can determine the best intervention and also identify the type of experience and training that is needed fill up that “gap” – differenced in skills. Many


Human Resource Management: Training Needs Analysis

HR managers usually disregard this step because o lack of time and perceived lack of value in it. Nonetheless, avoiding the needs analysis can result in serious problems (Kochan et al 2008). Time and monetary resources will be lost in future by training that was uncalled for or inefficient. Training needs analysis points out whether training is really required; determines the source poor performance; established content and degree of the trainings; predicts the requires results for training and provides the grounds of measuring the success hence obtaining the support of the manager (Rosset 2008).

The current world has seen changes on the workplaces and new technologies are being introduced every time. Doing a training analysis is very important when performance issue is requested. The introduction of new business process or information systems is common situation nowadays that call for training (Hersey & Blanchard 2007).

The type of analysis to be done depends on the objective of the organization. However one should consider other aspects like resource availability, time, etc. despite the complicatedness of the analysis, there are six important steps that are common to every needs analysis for the training requirements (White & Bednar 2007).

First step: identifying Problem Needs- this is the step where condition for calling for training is determined. Identification of the possible gap in skills and setting of the goals are in this stage. The employee’s current situation is used to establish the cause of concern (Hersey & Blanchard 2007

Second step: determining Design of the Analysis- establishing the selection criteria for the method to be used and evaluation of the benefits and shortcomings for the methods is done at this stage (Kochan et al 2008).


Human Resource Management: Training Needs Analysis

Third Step: data collection – conducting interviews, administering surveys and questionnaires; observation of the performance of the employees at work; carrying out focused group discussion and document reviews are done at this step to collect all the relevant information in as much as possible way. Open ended questions are usually very good and are in fact recommended (White & Bednar 2007)

Step Four: Data Analysis – conduction quantitative and qualitative analysis and determines of the intervention as well as making recommendation constitute this stage. In some cases, subject matter experts can be hired to offer assistance in these analyses (McClelland 2004).

Step Five: Feedback – a report is written at this stage and in some cases an oral presentation is made. It also determines whether the next step will go on- is training really necessary? (Storey 2007)

Step Six: developing action Plan- the results obtained from the previous steps are used as the basis for developing, designing the training program and evaluation

Though carrying out the step by step breakdown is recommended, in real life situation the time and resource for this may not be unavailable. In such a circumstance, the process is not simply written off but the HR manager can try to do the best that can be done. At least the HR can illuminate the issue of concern in performance; assess and describe what the target is doing versus what is needed; institute the source of the performance matter and settle on the possible solutions. It’s important to bear in mind that good training will not just come easy but it’s a consequence of much preparedness and forethought (Storey 2007).


Human Resource Management: Training Needs Analysis

Significance of Training Analysis

In point of fact, the skills and knowledge that the workers should be having in order to successively meet the organizational and the knowledge they in reality have is very important (White & Bednar 2007). This is because the difference is actually the gap being sought by the analysis and identifying these differences will assists also in identifying the new skill or knowledge that the worker then ought to be trained in. its also pertinent to note that this method has often failed to provide satisfying information since the cultural dimension is lacking. The human resource managers who are concerned with the affairs of the workers should ensure that they identify the employee’s perceptions of the corporate responsibility as developed by the corporate culture. This should be done by inquiring from them the skills, knowledge and characteristics they thought might be encouraged, appreciated and rewarded (Kochan et al 2008).

The perception of the worker concerning the need to get new skill or advance on their knowledge can be sought via use of questions like the ones used by technology firms. Billiton International Metals for instance asked its employees to state how they thought training would assist in developing and driving future achievements of the organization, that is, the necessity of training to meet the objectives of their employer (Kochan et al 2008). The possible recognition and rewarding system of the firm was also to be discussed. The response from the employees will be a reflection of the perception concerning the need to start training of set up a training program (Bohlander & Snell 2009)

Efficient training in human resource management or development in an organization is dependent on the understanding of what outcomes would be – – for the individual, the Human resource and other departments and finally the entire organization. Since the economy is not stable in the whole world, its very critical when organizations try to save money and train their workers on the limited budget, the training is actually targeted on the specific skills that were found deficient in the analysis (McClelland 2004 & McConnell 2003). Since this is still an investment, return on the investment is very important and should be guaranteed.

Training needs analysis is very imperative be current changing environment in the business


Human Resource Management: Training Needs Analysis

world. The success is dependent on the HR efficiency (Kochan et al 2008).

Role of the Human Resource Management in Training Analysis

The 21st century is a critical period in the growth of business departments especially the information and communications departments and the human resources departments as these have become every critical for the development of any organization. The following are major functions of the human resource department as identified many organizations with well developed department divisions (McClelland 2004). Human resource planning (keeping workers records, forecasting, career modeling and succession planning); employment (recruitment, training, selection, testing and orientation); training and development (primary and advanced skills training, devising working programs); labor relation (solving employee concerns, monitoring morale, labor management programs); compensation (incentives, analyses of job performance, salary surveys and performance reviews); workforce benefits (administration of policy, health insurance, designing vacation and sick benefits schemes) (Brown 2002); safety (making sure that the workplace complies with safety regulations like Occupational Safety and Heath Act, supervising security, carrying out possible accident investigations, and evaluation of the physical environment); discipline (policy formulation and coordination, conduction of disciplinary measures) (Anderson 1998); and personnel research (conducting opinion surveys, carrying out the Human resource audits, and analyzing work related statistics as well as publishing it) (Chiu et al 1999)

The above functions can be discussed in different ways especially considering their main functions. Execution of strategy by enhancing the planning of business of organizations performance in boardrooms and transferring this into market place is critical to actual performance (Brown 2002). It’s evident that most organizations are striving to produce more and better product, enhance service delivery and to ensure that the firm adapts to the continuous transformations in the business world. The achievement of all these relies on the workforce of the company; a resource that have come to be identified as a major differentiator in a fast growing knowledge motivated business environment (Brendh 2005). The human resource does a very important responsibility in achieving this by ensuring the correct policies, strategies, and better processes of decision making.


Human Resource Management: Training Needs Analysis

The training analysis gives the human resource management the relevant information to be used in their major work responsibilities. Human resource management recruits, and selects the correct people with relevant skills so as to ensure that the organization’s objectives are met without jeopardizing individual ambitions (Brendh 2005). Bearing in mind that the training analysis tells the human resource manager what is lacking the organization, training can be set to target those skill lacking. Recruitment, which is another important function of the human resource management, can be utilized to capture the required knowledge and skill previously lacking; Drawing of the job requirements when a vacancy is announced will save the company from the costs of hiring and re-training the workers (Miller & Osinski 2002). Through such initiatives, the human resource management team is able to ascertain a clear perspective of the talent base of the organization and also establishes whether they have to recruit other people with certain capabilities or not. For instance where a firm makes its forecasts for the supply and/or demand or the workforce during training analysis process so as to meet the preset objectives and aims this is achieved by the human resource development function (John 1998).

Man power training is very essential for any organization of a business firm. This is because the consequences of the failing to do so are very costly and as such, a firm that is understaffed losses out on the economies of scale of the business and customers, profits and orders (McConnell 2003). However overstaffing on the other hand is wasteful lance very costly at the same time. Basing on the current legitimate handling of workforce issues, it would be difficult to eliminate such a phenomenon because of redundancy payments, time of notice, and consultations (Barbazette 2006). Furthermore, overstaffing discourages the competitive effectiveness of the firm. During training analysis, it’s very essential to take into consideration all the future requirements so the firm and make comparisons with the current resources from which postulations can be made in terms of resources. This step attempts to balance the supply and demand needs (Anderson 1998).

The process of selection and recruiting of workers is the second most critical function of the business organization. The first step to be conducted before the recruitment is commenced is the analysis of the work to be carried out; that is the analytical study of the responsibilities to be taken care of and to establish their important aspects (Bohlander & Snell 2009); this is then written out in job descriptions so that during the selection those in charge can have a clear indication of exactly what to look for (applicant’s mental and physical characteristics) in terms of attitudes, qualities and what are disadvantages. Having done very good analysis of training needs, it’s important to employ or recruit those people who indicate that they have relevant skills and would require minimal training (Miller & Osinski 2002).


Human Resource Management: Training Needs Analysis

There are aspects that have to be taken into consideration during recruitment practices for instance internal promotions and introductions, use of agencies for recruitments, use of career officers, university appointment boards and placing adverts. Jobs that require experiences and greater expertise have to be thoroughly scrutinized and that unfailing applicants given health forms to complete them (John 1998). Letters of appointments should only be sent when the all doubts have been cleared about medical fitness and other requirements. Interviews can be conducted by a panel of interviewers, individuals and series of interviews by different experts. The main features that are tested include attainments, aptitude and general intelligence (Anderson 1998). Training follows the recruitment and it’s equally important and it includes teaching the recruits what they will be expected to be doing at their jobs disposal.

Employee evaluation is a crucial function as an organization needs to continually know the performance of tits workforce and this can only be achieved by assessing their work. This can help to the firm to in improving the performance of tits workforce in terms of individual contributions (Rosset 2008). The evaluation process also assists to identify possible talents and other capabilities to fill other vacancies in the organization and finally this can be a sure way of linking payments to the performance. Tainting can be cheaper if certain employees with special talents and outstanding capabilities are identified in the process of training needs evaluation (John 1998). Certain organizations usually depend on such people for future survival.

Other Important Aspects in Training Needs Analysis

Attitude, Motivation and Perception: The Individual behavior in HR management is usually studied in the three main aspects; ability, intelligence and multiple intelligences. Ability is described as the individual’s capability to execute the task allocated to him on the job. Intelligence ability is the capability to execute mental or more logic tasks while multiple intelligence is perceived to be the combination of the following abilities; cultural, social, emotional and cognition (Broadbent 2000). All the above aspects are very important for the


Human Resource Management: Training Needs Analysis

growth of an organization as they play a crucial role in learning and reinforcement of ideas to individual in the organizational set up. However there is a five step crisis resolving model in any organization;


Identification of Important behavior



developing a baseline formation (Miller & Osinski

3. identifying the possible penalty of the behavior

4. develop and administer intervention liker training

5. analyze and evaluate the performance to see any         improvements (Barbazette 2006)

Attitude and Job Satisfaction: the attitude of the employees can greatly affect their performance and hence the organization can run into losses. Lack of job satisfaction can provoke bad attitude while job satisfaction builds up job satisfaction. Employees need to be aware that job performance and achieving the objectives of the organization. Negative attitude could be that the workers are not properly trained for the job or their skill causes them to strain a lot and hence dislike the job. Training analysis can be used to establish the deficient skill in such cases and an intervention to be proposed. The effects of attitude on the job performance can be explained by the use of cognitive dissonance theory and the self perception theory (Broadbent 2000).

Types of Attitudes: Job satisfaction- this are positive or negative thought a person holds towards his/her job, job involvement- this is job identification, participation and considering the performance as significant to oneself. Organizational commitment – identifying oneself with a specific organization and its objectives and wishing to maintain membership to the organization; Employee engagement- this is individual’s connection with, contentment with and passion for the organization. Perceived organizational support (POS) – is the extent to which employees perceive that the organization is concerned about their welfare (Santos et al 2005).

Job satisfaction and Employee performance: Employees who are satisfied by their job have a significant level of productivity and consequently feel satisfied. Work productivity is shown to increase in organizations with more satisfied workers and vise versa. Absenteeism is very limited in organization with satisfied workers, satisfied workforce are less likely to give up their job hence turnover is reduced, satisfied workers tend to trust their organization and may give in


Human Resource Management: Training Needs Analysis

services that extend beyond the normal job jurisdictions (Renckly 2004)


Perception is described as the way in which an individual can deduce their sensory parody and organize themselves in order to give a logic meaning to the surroundings (Santos et al 2005). Or otherwise it can be identified as the complex dealings of choice, association and interpretation of motivation. The internal factors of perception are motivation, personality, and learning (Renckly 2004)

Employee Motivation: This is a very important aspect of both organization behavior and the department of human resource management. This helps in retaining good employees and encouraging them to work even better by given the best working environment. Financial, physiological and psychological rewards are very critical (Brown 2002). This is basically the zeal to exert high levels of performance towards achieving the organizational objectives. Human resource managers have to understand the individual goals and organization objectives have to be blended so as to have a common target to achieve. The common issue that can be addressed is to take into consideration the human rights (O’Brien 2003)


Objective Management – This is the connection between the goal setting theory of motivation and human resource management at the workplace. In this type of management, the objectives of the organization are agreed upon by everyone within the organization and harmonized with individual ambitions. The objectives should be realistic, in a specified period of time, specific, measurable and achievable. Needs analysis is usually carried out up front, that is ahead of


Human Resource Management: Training Needs Analysis

commencement of the training solutions the output of the analysis givers specific steps and characters to be involved the question what, why, who where and when are answered here. To get more specific; the document of analysis seeks to answer the following questions;

What are the skills and knowledge needed in the organization? Why do the workers need to be trained? Who of the employees need training? When will the workers apply the new skills? How will the training of the new skill be done? And where will the training take place? Note that the required skills are usually communication, leadership, analytical, business, customer, people and work skills.


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Human Resource Management: Training Needs Analysis

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Human Resource Management: Training Needs Analysis

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