Philosophy and Technology

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Science is the body of knowledge gathered by an individual through a learning process and conceptualization through the five senses that is sight, smell, hearing, touch and taste.

Technology on the other hand is a wide subject that deals with obtained knowledge of several tools and how they affect or influence the life of human beings. In some other simple definitions it can be said to be a new way of doing things.

How they differ


Philosophy and Technology

Scholars argue that these are two distinct social organizations with different collective norms, objectives and codes of conduct.

Science treats knowledge as a public consumption good and the social imperative of scientific organization is full disclosure of research results. The rule of priority is an institution that gives a private incentive to scientists and stimulates full disclosure and diffusion of knowledge, thus providing a solution to the appropriate problem raised. On the contrast technology is a social organization that considers organizations that considers knowledge as a private capital good. The private incentive mechanism for members of a technology community is the private rents from the production of new knowledge. The most diffused incentive mechanism, the patent system, has some features of the reward system of the scientific community in that it gives an intellectual property right to the producer of a public good.( Stegner 2004).

Difference based on output

Unlike scientific knowledge technological knowledge is specific and therefore difficult and costly to reproduce. Technology is not simply applied science, as assumed by the linear model of research. The relationship between basic knowledge and applied knowledge are complex in particular the chain link model brought forward by Kline and Rosenberg that takes into account the complex interactions between science and technology in innovative activities in terms of both the outputs and the institutions that are involved in these activities.

Science is concerned with pursuing knowledge as a primal objective while technology is mainly concerned with creation of systems to meet the needs of the people.

Science follows a systematic format in its processes while in technology there may not be properly stipulated formats when carrying out technological assignments.


Philosophy and Technology

The tenets of science are discovery while those of technology is designing, inventing and producing. (Neuman 2004).

The other point of contrast between science and technology is that in science the basic evaluating method begins with analyzing, then generalizing and finally creation of subject theories in the case of technology it has the same starting point that is analysis but then the subsequent stage is design synthesis which is also the final step.

In science a wide scope of information and concepts have to be gathered, analyzed, and isolated in the technological fields this is different as it involves integration of a wide range of theories and ideas.

Most of science results are very freely available and their releases to the public may not come with an added cost however this is different for technology s most of the inventions are availed to the public at a cost.

The other point of difference between these two is t he predictability of the results of each in science the review of the primal data can give a general direction of the final results which makes scientific processes predictable, for the technological advancements no data is priory acquired thus no initial information to give a general direction of information this makes technological advancements very unpredictable.


Philosophy and Technology

The other is the medium of communication or mediation process this is carried out through people in the case of technology while science mainly uses words to put across findings and theories postulated. (Cardwel 2002).

The science field is mainly concerned with data synthesis and theory formations for their cause while in technology the participants are concerned with process formations and theorizing these processes.

The required skills in scientific fields are mainly those to do with experimentation also possession of logic skills is a strong requirement for the scientific processes. Technological process bank a lot in possession of designing, construction, quality maintenance and assurance, and communication skills.

Science has particular inclinations in the study of nature while technology is more inclined to study and development of objects.

The last contrast point for the two is that science most pronounced quality is the derivation of conclusion from well stated theories and correct data while he most observable characteristic for the technological designs is correct decision formulation which is derived from un summed data and incomplete models.

Similarity of science and technology

Science and technology are known to relate very closely to each other and each provides a


Philosophy and Technology

means to help on the others processes. Among these similarities are the following:-

Science provides a framework which is used as part of input in most of the technological processes. This framework is also utilized to determine why some of the technological inventions work or do not work; that is science acts as a diagnosis tool for the technological inventions. Furthermore science seeks to explain the technological processes as it mainly deals with the analytical aspect. (Cardwell 2002).

Technology provides a means of explaining science or carrying forth the scientific processes this is through most of the equipments that is as a result of technological advances such as computers, telescopes etc. These equipments have highly helped in the science field in such activities as observation of scientific phenomena (for the telescope) and analysis and exchange of information when we talk of the computer.

Technology also is the means by which most of us understand scientific processes, that is it provides a means to help interpret the scientific findings. Under the same function technology provides the chance to criticize the findings of science or support them as it comes in to ease the complex theoretical summaries with simple practical demonstrations.

Science and technology both lay considerable emphasis on discovery and inventions; this is despite the fact hat one (technology) seems to wholly rely on invention and creativity of individuals within its field. (Lopez and Potter 2000).

They both do not have a stated constrain because the limit is the thinking, creativity and innovativeness of individuals which is a natural endowment.


Philosophy and Technology

They both employ the same basics for their processes that is they both have people to initiate their processes and systems.

Science and technology have both with time developed a feedback system where each of the systems or processes are evaluated both on function ability for technological inventions and viability for the scientific processes. It should however be noted that the feed back processes are not designed in the same way as the content of each may be different such as maybe the case in testing scientific data which is theoretical is different from testing technological inventions which are physical or artifacts.

Link between Science and Technology

The link between these two is the bridge of the two that makes them look like they are both one and the same thing and yet they are both fundamentally different. The link cannot be established until the two are completely understood and a clear cut line is drawn to determine what the exact intermediaries of the two are.

Herewith I describe some of the common links that exist between these two:-


People are one of the best known link between technology and science, this happens when people collect data for the purpose of scientific processes this information is at some point necessary for the inventions that are made by those in the technological fields. This links as follows ones information is collected and summed up new conclusions are formed on certain phenomena or operations or even processes, these are the gaps that originally may not have


Philosophy and Technology

been apparent. (Neuman 2004).

This new found gap is what the technological experts try to bridge through their inventions especially if the same can be solved through a technical operation. This is the link that may exist between these two where science through people provides descriptions of the current processes which is consequently a technological obligation to try come up with a means to provide the link through inventions. This way people are considered an important link between the two that is technology and science this way they act as agents between the two interdependent fields.


This has been an argument for a considerable number of years where the argument has been why people and knowledge should be discussed as different links. The argument is concluded by the argument that individuals who are agents in the “people link” may not necessarily be the same ones that came up with the knowledge that is to be discussed under this. Knowledge means the natural of an individual that helps him make outstanding conceptualization. (Neumann 2004).

Knowledge is considered a link between the two as it provides a “roadmap” for the advancements of both and it actually provides that bridge between the two where it helps define the use of science in technological inventions and use of technological inventions in the science fields.


Philosophy and Technology

An example for this is when one makes a choice on when to make use of a computer in making scientific deductions or carrying out certain scientific processes. This way a computer which is a product of technological advancement is used to make good scientific conclusions. Thus knowledge helps bridge technology to science which is basically the link between the two fields. (Stegner 2004).


This is an acronym for science and technology and has been used for almost five decades now to help give a notion of the common line between the two fields which the founders of the two thought had a strong common ground thus sought to create an awareness of these two thought to be related fields. This led to an emergence of many institutions which hope to create and attract the proponents of the concept. Among the users of these acronyms is the SCI TECH institute in Australia.

This is a non profit organization based in Australia and carries out exhibitions for people of all backgrounds on science and technology. Its main agenda is to promote growth of science and technology by helping create the relation between the two this is by creating awareness between individuals and helping build on the links of the two. (Cardwell 2002).

Thus considering the growth and use of the word which indeed has created a forum for the proponents of the two fields then I believe it is more of a natural harmony field than any of the other suggestions. This is because it has been aimed to create the ground for the relation of the two and how each of them can help in the development of the other in the current times and in the future.

These questions are of great importance not only to the expertise but also to the scholars and other individuals who may want to understand the functioning of these fields. Though the


Philosophy and Technology

experts can be seen to make more and appropriate use of the information generated from the study of the two, others like the students also strengthen their foundations of the two fields when provided with adequate information on the correlation of the two. This goes a long way in enhancing and building the future of the two fields. (Cornell University 2006).


The technological and science fields have become unanimous with time and it requires a deep analysis of each to determine the relationship that exists between the two. This will help make distinctions and help come up with the common points to help solve the relation issues which are a mystery to many.


Cardwell D (2002). Wheel clocks and Rockets: A history of Technology. W .W Norton.

Cornell University. College of Engineering. (2006). SciTech, volumes 3-5. CUME, Inc.


Philosophy and Technology

Lopez, J and Potter, G (2001).After postmodernism: An introduction to critical

Realism. Athlone press, London.

Neuman, Y. (2003). Processes and boundaries of the mind: Extending the limit

Line. Plenum Publishers, New York.

Stegner W (2004). Beyond the Hundredth Meridian. Penguin publishers, New York