**Fundamentals of Statistics**

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Introduction:

The following discussion **highlights** the difference in job satisfaction across the three department included in the AIU data set, a number of statistical operations are undertaken to determine the distribution of these variables, grouping intrinsic mean values according to department show that there is a difference in the mean satisfaction levels across departments, the following is a summary of major results.

Variables:

Fundamentals of Statistics

Witte (1989) defines Qualitative Data as a code __that__ represents a word, sentence or category observations, from the data set a number of variables in the data set are qualitative and they include gender, department and position. In this the position variable is selected in order to establish whether there is a difference in job satisfaction levels among individuals in different positions. Witte (1989) defines Quantitative data as data that contains numbers, for example a case of age where individuals indicate their age as 23,56 or 76, this form of data is quantitative, in the data set a number of variables including job satisfaction, intrinsic and benefits are quantitative.

The department and intrinsic data are selected for this study, this is because one is quantitative and the other is qualitative, the analysis of these two variables will help determine whether there is a difference in the level of satisfaction across departments. Results will aid in determining which department has the highest job satisfaction level and which department requires action to be taken in order to increase satisfaction, finally differences may be used to check the possible reason why there is a difference in job satisfaction and whether working conditions in those department affect the satisfaction of employees.

Results:

A. Department:

Analysis of the department variable shows that the majority 40% of the individuals included in the study worked in the human resource department, only a few 24% worked at the information technology department. According to Witte (1989) “Graphs or charts show the connection between different changing things, for instance numbers or **amounts**” (Witte, 1989), therefore in this case charts are used to show connection in data. The following chart summarizes the results:

Fundamentals of Statistics

The “Mean, median and mode are the common scopes of central tendency. The mean is the average value, median is the middle and mode is the common value” (Witte, 1989).he also states that for qualitative data the mean and median are meaningless and only the mode has a meaning, the chart below summarizes the results

department

average

1.96

mode

1

median

2

Fundamentals of Statistics

standard deviation

0.888819

variance

0.79

Only the mode in the above case has a meaning and the mode value is the value 1 which represents the human resource department.

B. Intrinsic:

The following chart shows the distribution of of this variable:

From the histogram it is evident that the variable is positively skewed, this is because majority of the observations are high values of the scale, only 16% of the observations are below intrinsic value 4.

The following table summarizes the mean and standard deviations for this variable.

**Fundamentals of Statistics**

intrinsic

average

5.116

mode

4.5

median

5.2

standard deviation

1.033473

variance

Fundamentals of Statistics

1.068067

The mean value is 5.116, the mode is 4.5 and median is 5.2, the median > than the mean meaning that that the variable is positively skewed, the standard deviation value is 1.03335 and this means that data deviates 1.03335 units from the mean value.

Intrinsic and departments:

The table below summarizes the sum and mean values for each department:

SUM

N

Human Resources

55

*Fundamentals of Statistics*

10

5.5

Information Technology

30.3

6

5.05

Administration

42.6

9

4.7333333

Fundamentals of Statistics

127.9

25

5.116

This information can be summarizes by the chart below:

From the chart above the overall intrinsic mean is 5.116, the human resource department has the highest intrinsic mean value while administration department has the lowest intrinsic mean, it is also evident that only the human resource department has a mean value greater than the mean value.

Conclusion:

The above analysis shows that there is a difference in intrinsic mean values across department; the management decision in this case will be check difference in the __human__ resource

**Fundamentals of Statistics**

department work environment and the other departments, this help in implementing policies that will help in improving employee satisfaction in the administration department.

REFERENCE:

Witte, S. (1989) Statistics (3rd Edition). Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

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